Vertical specialization, outsourcing and direct investment in the spanish manufacturing sector

It is not possible to understand the globalisation process without studying
the growing expansion of international trade in intermediate goods. The
outsourcing measures used in this paper are calculated from input-output
tables and allow us to explain the evolution of intra –and inter– industrial
trade for the Spanish manufactures in 1995-2000. Vertical specialization
goes a step further by linking imports of inputs required by a country and its
exports. Furthermore, this paper analyses the impact on outsourcing of both
the presence of multinational firms (MNEs) and the inward and outward flows
of direct investment. Our results indicate that in high-tech sectors, the presence
of MNEs is linked to high intra-industrial outsourcing, and in some traditional
(low-tech) outsourcing is related to Spanish outward FDI.
María Ángeles Cadarso Vecina
María Ángeles Tobarra Gómez
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